What is speech?
Speech is how we make sounds using the muscles of the mouth. A number of factors go into the development of this intricate system such as the strength and mobility of the muscles of the mouth and motor skills.
Individuals with a speech delays/disorders may exhibit:
- Reduced or no babble
- Limited speech sounds
- Unintelligible speech
- Phonological processes (vary by age) (e.g., “ha’ for ‘hat’; ‘top’ for ‘stop)
- Articulation errors
What are receptive language and expressive language?
Receptive language refers to an individual’s ability to understand language (e.g., following directions, answering questions, comprehension of information).
Expressive language refers to how a child uses gesture, pictures or speech with good intent to express themselves. It encompasses vocabulary/semantics and morphology/syntax.
Individuals with receptive and expressive language delays/disorders may demonstrate difficulty with:
- Play skills/expanding play
- Eye contact
- Understanding spoken language
- Answering questions
- Difficulty following directions
- Reading/writing skills
- Expressing thoughts/ideas, often leading to frustration
- Speech delay
- Babbling/acquisition of words
- Affect or intention to interact
What is social pragmatic language?
Social language is used in interactions with others and in conversations. Language is constantly changing depending on the demands of the situation. Perspective taking and empathy are critical skills for solid social pragmatic language skills.
Individuals with social language problems may demonstrate difficulty with :
- Eye contact
- Holding conversations
- Telling stories in an organized manner
- Tone of voice
- Staying on topic
- Reading social cues
- Personal space